Prescription Drug Addiction: Recognizing the Signs

Of the many mind-altering, addictive substances to which people can become addicted, one of the most dangerous isprescription medication, which is why it’s important to recognize prescription drug addiction as soon as possible.

Like alcohol, prescription painkillers are legal drugs if they are obtained and used as intended. Unfortunately, painkillers are highly susceptible to abuse and diversion, which refers to the tendency for those who are prescribed opiate painkillers to illegally distribute them through a variety of channels to individuals who buy them on the street for the purpose of recreationally abusing them.

After OxyContin was released in the 1990s, the United States quickly fell into a major painkiller addiction epidemic that continues to affect society today. As such, it’s important for individuals to be aware of the warning signs of prescription drug addiction so that they can recognize this harmful, life-threatening habit in others.

Why Are Prescription Drugs Addictive?

Prescription painkillers are opiates, which means they are synthetic substances that are chemically similar to morphine and the opium from which morphine is derived. Typically, these drugs are prescribed to individuals who have sustained some sort of injury or when an individual suffers from a condition that involves chronic pain as opiates are effective in alleviating moderate to severe pain.

When a person takes an opiate painkiller, the drug binds with the opioid receptors in the brain, diminishing the individual’s capacity for pain. Additionally, opiate painkillers cause a spike in neurochemicals such as dopamine and serotonin, which also help an individual to overcome pain. However, when painkillers are abused by taking more than the prescribed amount or by taking the drug when they’re not actually needed, the effects are compounded.

The individual experiences an intoxication and euphoria from the drug due to the substance binding to the brain’s opioid receptors, as well as from the surge in production and activation of neurochemicals. When an individual finds the experience to be enjoyable and begins abusing painkillers frequently, the individual’s body must adapt to his or her continuous consumption of opiates. This causes the development of additional opioid receptors in the brain with which more of the drug can bind.

Yet, this also means that more of the drug is needed to satisfy the individual’s desire to achieve a high level of intoxication. Additionally, the brain begins relying on the painkillers as the source of neurochemicals by reducing its own natural production of the substances. At this point, the individual has become physically dependent on opiates and will likely experience withdrawal symptoms after only a few hours without taking opiates.

Self-Medication and Opiate Painkiller Diversion

To recognize some of the signs of an opiate painkiller problem, it’s important to understand how and why individuals misuse opiate medication. Individuals who are prescribed opiates or opioids that they begin to misuse are often exhibiting a form of behavior known as self-medicating.

Whether they are trying to alleviate symptoms of a legitimate condition or are using the medication to alleviate their emotional distress, such individuals take it upon themselves to increase their dosage or begin taking opiates that aren’t prescribed to them, which renders the painkillers ineffective.

Alternately, individuals who are prescribed opiate painkillers might be diverting their medications, or selling them to substance abusers for a profit. Individuals who divert their prescription medications don’t usually abuse the drugs themselves, but it’s just as bad to sell them to individuals who shouldn’t be taking them for recreational abuse.

Prescription Drug Addiction and Dependency Signs

If an individual is abusing prescription drugs, there are signs that may indicate a problem.

One of the most common signs of a prescription drug addiction is a tendency to appear incredibly drowsy and lethargic, sometimes even beginning to fall asleep while sitting up or even standing—often colloquially referred to as “nodding out.”

While opiates bind with the brain’s pain receptors to prevent the individual from feeling pain, opiate painkillers also act as a depressant on the body, causing drowsiness, slurred speech, slowed cognition and reaction.

These individuals also will frequently be defensive when asked about their drowsiness, making excuses that serve to justify their being on the brink of sleep while sitting or standing. When a prescription drug user actually does nod off, their breathing will be incredibly, unnaturally slow. In fact, it may be difficult to detect that the individual is breathing at all.

When an opiate painkiller addict is without painkillers for one day or more, they will begin to exhibit symptoms of withdrawal. Some of the most common withdrawal symptoms experienced by a person in opiate addiction include sweating, nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea, twitching or jerking of the limbs, sneezing, watery eyes, sniffles, aches and pains throughout the body, moodiness, and pronounced insomnia.

With these symptoms being so unpleasant and potentially painful, the majority of individuals with prescription drug addiction will become quite desperate to keep withdrawal symptoms at bay, which might result in resorting to behaviors such as stealing—even from their own loved ones—to obtain painkillers and overcome this uncomfortable period.

A Better Life Is One Phone Call Away

It many cases, there are clues that an individual might be suffering from prescription drug addiction or some other type of drug. It is important to be aware of these signs so that people who are struggling with addiction can receive the help they need to beat this deadly disease.

If you or someone you love would benefit from learning more about treatment, call all New Perspectives at 855-463-0793 today or connect with us online for a free consultation and assessment. Let one of our recovery specialists help you or your loved one begin the journey of healing and regain physical and mental health.

Opioid Replacement Therapy: Good or Bad?

Although all drugs come with a certain risk of addiction, some are found to be more addictive compared to others. Among the most addictive substances are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine and crack cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and heroin. Due to the severity of addiction that stems most notably from opiates like heroin, the opioid epidemic has called for drastic treatment measures.

In recent years, opioid replacement therapy, also known as medication-assisted treatment, or MAT, has become increasingly prevalent. The key to deciding for what kind of treatment to choose comes from first understanding opioid addiction, then understanding available options, and finally weighing the pros and cons of each.

Classic Treatment Model

The preferred means of treating addiction, including opiate addiction, is typically an inpatient program at a residential treatment facility, beginning with a period of medically supervised detox and followed by aftercare and possibly a period in a halfway house or sober living facility.

However, while inpatient and intensive outpatient programs have proven to be effective for many who suffer from dependency and substance abuse disorders, no single treatment works best for every person who in active addiction. As such, it’s necessary for there to be a variety of addiction recovery treatments available to account for the diverse needs and preferences of the numerous individuals that are in need of treatment.

Opioid replacement therapy is considered an alternative to more traditional treatment programs, such as inpatient and outpatient recovery treatment, for treating opioid addiction and has remained very controversial. There are some who advocate very strongly for its efficacy while others tend to be adamantly against replacement therapy.

The Severity of Opioid Addiction

Arguably, the most addictive mind-altering substance around, heroin has been well-documented in its ability to rapidly hook people on it and being so notoriously difficult for people to quit once dependence has developed. In fact, opioids in general and heroin, in particular, are so highly addictive as to be classified as its own affliction called opioid use disorder, characterized by the compulsive and uncontrollable use of opioids—heroin and pharmaceutical opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and so on.

Heroin addiction and opioid use disorder are the results of developing both physical and psychological dependence on the drug. This is sometimes referred to as dependence withdrawal syndrome.

It’s often the fear and severity of withdrawal symptoms that keeps many who are addicted to opiates from seeking and participating in rehabilitative treatment. The onset of withdrawal symptoms can occur in as little as a few hours after the last dose and includes hot and/or cold flashes, anxiety, sudden increase or decrease in libido, muscle aches, teary eyes, mental fog and confusion, runny nose, sweating, insomnia, restless legs, yawning, and dehydration.

While these early withdrawal symptoms are unpleasant, it’s when they’re combined with the severity of advanced stage withdrawal that includes diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramping, vomiting, and a marked increase in muscle and joint pain, that it becomes worse.

Not only is the withdrawal unpleasant, but to a person who’s detoxing from opiates, it can seem to last forever. Although various factors determine how long a person with heroin addiction will experience withdrawal symptoms—length of opiate/opioid addiction, opiate/opioid tolerance, the number of opiates that was being administered daily, and so on—it’s generally accepted that withdrawal symptoms will peak after a few days and remain severe for about a week or possibly longer.

Additionally, it can take as much as a few weeks for the symptoms to subside or for the person to transition into much more manageable post-acute withdrawal.

What Is Opioid Replacement Therapy?

Opioid replacement therapy, or medication-assisted treatment, has emerged as a treatment option for individuals with heroin addiction and other opiates. By definition, replacement therapy refers to treatment in which the individual replaces an illicit opioid like heroin or painkillers bought on the street with a non-euphoric, longer-acting opioid. The addict is administered the opioid substitution while under medical supervision.

These medications used in opioid replacement therapy have various effects on the patients,  some inhibiting a euphoric response to opioids while others will act as a replacement of the opioid of choice completely.

Vivitrol

The first drug on the list for opioid replacement therapy is Vivitrol. Vivitrol is considered an opioid-blocking medication, meaning it prevents any euphoria or pain-relieving feelings to result when using opioids. It can be administered as an injectable via intramuscular gluteal injection or taken daily as an oral medication. It is also extremely effective in treating alcoholism by reducing the urge to drink. With the craving for alcohol removed, many have found cessation of drinking far easier to do with Vivitrol.

While Vivitrol removes the rewarding feelings from using opioids and alcohol, it does not counteract their effects. This means if you use opioids or alcohol while taking Vivitrol, you can still overdose.

Your chance for overdose is actually increased because you cannot feel the effects of the substances you’ve ingested, which can make knowing when to stop impossible.

This is why a person seeking Vivitrol treatment is required to be free of drugs and alcohol for at least two weeks before starting the treatment. This may be a problem for a person who is struggling with a severe addiction. The patient will also not get off scot-free as far as this being an “easy fix” for addiction. Additional counseling and monitoring are required by the health care provider during treatment. The shot itself is an integrated portion of the treatment program.

Suboxone

Perhaps one of the more recognizable methods for opioid replacement therapy, Suboxone, is another option for people in addiction recovery. Suboxone has long been used in medical detoxes at inpatient treatment facilities around the world as a sort of step-down method when getting off opioids. Many people in recovery are slowly weaned off opioids with a Suboxone taper.

Suboxone itself is a combination of buprenorphine and naloxone. The prescription medication also acts as an opioid blocker, which negates the use of any opiate. Suboxone maintenance is one of the more popular treatments in the opioid replacement therapy family, as its long-term use does not damage one’s internal organs. It also traditionally does not give the patient a feeling of euphoria or a “high” when administered in the correct dosage. Under the careful supervision of a health care provider, the appropriate dose is determined, and it will regulate the opioid dependency of the patient.

It is important to note, however, that the patient can develop a dependency on the medication. It is an opioid replacement. That means the patient will have to remain on the medication for an extended period. If the patient would ever want to stop using Suboxone, a taper much like the ones used in a medical detox would be required. There is no going “cold turkey” when on Suboxone and despite the taper, withdrawal symptoms likely will be present.

Methadone

Of all the techniques, methadone (brand name Dolophine and Methadose) has been under the most scrutiny for its various side effects.

Methadone is available as a tablet, liquid, or an injectable. It is an opioid blocker, and it reduces drug cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is required to be taken once a day, and it works for 24- to 36-hour increments. Methadone is only administered by a licensed medical health professional at designated dispensaries known as “methadone clinics.” Since it is a man-made opiate, much like morphine, much care and caution are used when providing methadone maintenance services.

When applying for this type of opioid replacement therapy, a sort of vetting process is performed. You will not be administered the medication on your first visit. An initial screening by the attending health care practitioner is required. This determines the appropriate dosage required as well as if the patient is a good candidate for treatment.

Since the dispensement of the medication is almost always required to be on-site, by undergoing methadone maintenance, you will need to visit the clinic on a daily basis. After some time, the doctor may allow you to occasionally take a small number of doses home with you, but that is not always the case. It is a very big commitment as you cannot miss even one dose.

There also are a multitude of risks associated with methadone use. If taken incorrectly, overdose can occur. In the past 10 years, methadone overdose has increased by 5.5 times. Physical dependence on the medication is also inevitable, and should treatment ever need to stop, an intense withdrawal process may abruptly start.

The Pros and Cons of Opioid Replacement Therapy

As mentioned previously, replacement therapy has been a very controversial treatment for opioid addiction. Those who are against replacement therapy often argue that replacement therapy is simply substituting one dependency for another and doesn’t help people with an addiction to become independent from chemical substances. However, some arguments support replacement therapy, and they suggest that it’s more a means of harm reduction than of recovery.

Opioid replacement therapy is a faster and less painful means of reducing some of the more serious risks associated with being in active addiction, such as contracting infectious diseases or committing crimes.

While opioid replacement therapy might help those with a severe addiction to begin living a safer and healthier life, the biggest drawback to replacement therapy is that addicted people remain physically dependent on a substance, albeit a substance that’s not illicit and one that reduces much of the risk associated with addiction rather than actually recovering from dependency.

There’s growing evidence that replacement therapy can be used in the initial stages of inpatient treatment as a means of tapering the severity of opioid withdrawal, but this isn’t yet a common practice and will require ongoing study to determine how this may be beneficial to patients. There may be instances in which replacement therapy is an ideal option for some individuals with opioid addiction, but it remains that the best journey from addiction will always be to recover from chemical dependency altogether.

Need Addiction Treatment?

If you or someone you love is battling an opioid dependence or addiction or an addiction to other substances, New Perspectives is here to help. Our recovery specialists have helped countless individuals with substance and behavioral addictions to begin the journey toward recovery. Don’t wait to start your new life—call us today at 855-463-0793 or connect with us online.

 

How Does Harm Reduction Therapy Work?

When it comes to addiction recovery treatment, it is important to remember there is no one type of treatment or therapy that is going to be successful for everyone. For a rehabilitation program to be able to offer its clients the most effective treatment, it needs to provide a variety of options that can be tailored to the needs of a given individual.

For many people struggling with a substance use disorder, total abstinence from drugs or alcohol can seem like an impossible goal, which can keep them from seeking out professional addiction treatment services.

This is where the concept of harm reduction therapy comes in. The term harm reduction, as it relates to addiction treatment, actually refers to two separate approaches.

The first is the idea of lessening the usage of drugs or alcohol rather than aiming for immediate abstinence. The second is that if addiction treatment is not an option, then at least find a way to reduce the level of social, economic, and personal harm that substance abuse causes. Common examples of this include needle exchange programs and the efforts to make overdose-reversal drug Narcan more widely available.

But does harm reduction work in curtailing substance abuse?

What Is Harm Reduction Therapy?

Harm reduction therapy is typically more focused on the first idea, which is getting someone to lessen their usage of whatever substance they are dependent on.

Perhaps the biggest misconception surrounding harm reduction therapy is that it supports or encourages the continued abuse of a substance. This is not the case, as the overall goal of harm reduction therapy is still eventual abstinence, just on more of a sliding scale.

Harm reduction therapy acts as another option for an addiction treatment professional to have in their toolbox to more effectively treat a wider range of clients. As previously mentioned, total abstinence all at once is not going to work for everyone who is addicted to drugs or alcohol, and can even act as a deterrent that keeps them from entering a recovery program.

Lessening Usage Over Time

The biggest distinction between harm reduction therapy and abstinence-based treatments is how therapeutic progress is measured. For example, if someone was struggling with alcohol addiction and having at least eight drinks a day, and after a month of treatment reported that they were having three drinks a day, this would be counted as a failure.

However, under the principles of harm reduction therapy, this would be viewed as successful progress, as the person has at least been able to reduce their alcohol intake and is clearly taking steps in the right direction.

While the end goal is still abstinence, harm reduction therapy can make the process of achieving sobriety less intimidating, breaking it down into more manageable milestones and helping to build up the confidence of the person in treatment.

In contrast, if someone who was dependent on drugs or alcohol tried to quit all at once and then relapsed, the potential feelings of defeat and shame could make them feel like any further attempts at recovery would be pointless and end in failure.

Replacement Therapy

Apart from just encouraging those in treatment to use less, another common harm reduction strategy in addiction treatment, particularly when it comes to treating opioid dependence, is medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in the form of substance replacement therapy.

MAT basically uses the same logic as using a nicotine patch or gum to quit smoking cigarettes. To successfully get people in treatment to stop using heroin or prescription opioids, they will instead be given administrations of buprenorphine or Suboxone to block cravings and wean them off their dependence.

Buprenorphine is what is known as a partial opioid agonist, so it is much weaker than heroin or other opioids and able to help with cravings and withdrawal without providing a euphoric high. Suboxone is a drug that is a mix of buprenorphine and naloxone, an opioid blocker that is the primary ingredient in Narcan.

As with the other methods of harm reduction therapy, the goal of harm reduction strategies like Suboxone maintenance is eventual abstinence. Once someone has been fully weaned off their opioid of abuse, the next step is to then slowly taper down Suboxone usage. It is a longer overall process but has been proven in clinical case studies to provide positive outcomes in terms of people staying in treatment longer and avoiding relapse in the future.   

The Controversy Behind Addiction and Harm Reduction

Not everyone is in agreement, however, that addiction and harm reduction strategies are a useful combination. In fact, many people even view it as the opposite, something that is actively harmful to people with substance use disorders.

Many people worry that harm reduction therapy could be interpreted as a “free pass” of sorts to continue engaging in substance abuse. In the case of treatments like buprenorphine or Suboxone maintenance therapy, there also is the fear that it is just replacing one opioid with another rather than solving dependency.

It is true that medication-assisted treatment on its own is not going to be enough for someone to truly recover from their addiction, and it is critical that it is paired with evidence-based behavioral therapy for it to be effective.

In a similar vein outside of addiction rehabilitation treatment, the harm reduction strategy of having law enforcement and other emergency responders carry Narcan to save people from fatal overdoses has been met with significant criticism, too.

Many law enforcement officials have expressed frustration about having to use Narcan over and over to revive the same people, and that having an “overdose safety net” might make those dependent on opioids feel less pressured to stop using or even reduce their use.

Part of this problem is, again, that Narcan is not a solution on its own. It works as a form of harm reduction in that it saves lives, but it is not a form of therapy, and it does not do anything to address addictive behaviors. For that, addiction rehabilitation services must be sought out.

Of course, just as abstinence-based treatment is not universally effective, harm reduction therapy is not going to be a viable option for everyone. Some people dealing with severe substance use disorders cannot control how much they use and are then unable to actively lessen their use over time.

But for those who are good candidates for harm reduction therapy, it can mean the difference between eventual sobriety and no treatment at all.

Looking for Help with Substance Abuse Recovery?

If you or a loved one is struggling with a substance use disorder and searching for help, New Perspectives can help you take the crucial first steps toward recovery by combining medication-assisted treatment and traditional therapies to guide you through the withdrawal process.

Our skilled and experienced clinicians and staff work to provide the highest quality professional addiction recovery treatment services. Call us today at 855-463-0793 to speak to one of our specialists about finding the treatment program that’s right for you or your loved one. You can alsocontact us online for more information.